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Title: Current trends and challenges in point-of-care urinalysis of biomarkers in trace amounts
Authors: Yeasmin, Sanjida
Ammanath, Gopal
Önder, Ahmet
Yan, Evelias
Yıldız, Ümit Hakan
Palaniappan, Alagappan
Liedberg, Bo
Nanyang Technological University
Nanyang Technological University
Nanyang Technological University
Nanyang Technological University
Nanyang Technological University
Keywords: Biomarkers
Trace amounts
Point-of-care testing
Issue Date: Dec-2022
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Urinalysis enables non-invasive point-of-care (POC) testing of numerous biomarkers at their physiological and elevated levels, obviating the need for sophisticated equipment or trained personnel. POC urinalysis is used to identify biomarkers that are rich in urine (greater than 1 μM), such as lactate, uric acid, glucose, ions, and adenosine. Urine also contains biomarkers such as small molecules, nucleic acids, neurotransmitters, and drugs in trace amounts (less than 1 μM). These biomarkers are of significant importance for health care monitoring, diagnosis of various disorders (cancer, metabolic diseases, etc.) and illicit drug control (cocaine, steroids, etc.). While POC detection of urinary biomarkers at higher concentration (μM to mM) levels is feasible, direct assaying of biomarkers in nM to fM levels is challenging, as assay responses are typically masked by interferences from the urine sample matrix. This report is a consolidated review of emerging trends and challenges in the POC urinalysis for detecting biomarkers that are less abundant in urine. The sensing mechanisms, analytical device fabrication, discrete and integrated sample pre-treatment procedures for POC assaying of urinary markers in trace amounts are elaborated. Subsequently, the utilization of smart data analytics for facilitating personalized urinalysis is presented. A comprehensive outlook on associated challenges in POC urinalysis of biomarkers in trace amounts is further provided, which would facilitate the advancement of POC urinalysis for a wide range of healthcare applications.
Appears in Collections:Chemistry / Kimya
Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collection
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collection

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