Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/11147/13644
Title: Sustainability of water, sanitation, and hygiene: From prehistoric times to the present times and the future
Authors: Angelakis, Andreas N.
Capodaglio, Andrea G.
Passchier, Cees W.
Valipour, Mohammad
Krasilnikoff, Jens
Tzanakakis, Vasileios A.
Suermelihindi, Guel
Baba, Alper
Keywords: Prehistoric and historical times
Middle and contemporary times
Emerging trends
Water supply pretreatment
Water quality
Publisher: MDPI
Abstract: Contaminated water and poor sanitation are associated with disease transmission. Absent, inadequate, or improperly managed water resources and sanitation systems expose individuals to preventable health risks. Billions of people lack access to these basic services today and will remain in this condition for decades to come. As we are usually thinking and talking about water, sanitation and hygiene services have changed. Looking back at the history of water, sanitation, and hygiene can help us understand the challenges and opportunities of these issues and draw lessons to achieve sustainable development in the future. Throughout history, civilizations have successfully experimented with treating water and using it for drinking, sanitation, and agriculture. For example, the Minoan civilizations originally focused on water treatment and cleaning to improve the aesthetic properties of drinking water. During prehistoric times, Minoan and Indus Valley civilizations, dating back to about 2000 BC, were the first to focus on the treatment of water supplies. From the early Minoan period, they relied on rainwater collection. During historic times, Hippocrates was the first to invent and used a water filter in the form of a cloth bag, at about 400 BC, known today as the Hippocrates Sleeve. The Romans perfected existing water technologies on a larger scale and initiated their spread throughout the Empire. Hygiene in ancient Rome was promoted by the famous public baths and toilets, which were supplied with water through widely branched aqueducts that had a high standard of cleanliness for the time and were regularly maintained.
URI: https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081614
https://hdl.handle.net/11147/13644
ISSN: 2073-4441
Appears in Collections:Civil Engineering / İnşaat Mühendisliği
Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collection
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collection

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