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Title: Meteorological drought assessment and trend analysis in Puntland Region of Somalia
Authors: Muse, Nur Mohamed
Tayfur, Gökmen
Safari, Mir Jafar Sadegh
Keywords: Deciles drought index
Discrepancy precipitation index
Percentage of normal index
Publisher: MDPI
Abstract: Drought assessment and trend analysis of precipitation and temperature time series are essential in the planning and management of water resources. Long-term precipitation and temperature historical records (monthly for 41 years, from 1980 to 2020) are used to investigate annual drought characteristics and trend analysis in Somalia's northern region. Six drought indices of the normal Standardized Precipitation Index (normal-SPI), the log normal Standardized Precipitation Index (log-SPI), the Standardized Precipitation Index using the gamma distribution (Gamma-SPI), the Percent of Normal Index (PNI), the Discrepancy Precipitation Index (DPI), and the Deciles Index (DI) are used in this study for the annual drought assessment. The log-SPI, the gamma-SPI, the PNI, and the DPI could capture historical extreme and severe droughts that occurred in the early 1980s and over the last two decades. The results indicate that Somalia has gone through extended drought periods over the past quarter century, exacerbating the existing humanitarian situation. The normal-SPI, gamma-SPI, and PNI indicate less and moderate drought conditions, whereas log-SPI, DPI, and DI accurately capture historical extreme and severe drought periods; thus, these methods are recommended as annual drought assessment tools in the studied region. Not only are the PNI and DPI less correlated to each other, but their correlation coefficient (CC) with SPI-based drought indices are not as high as SPI-based indices which are close to unity. For the purpose of the trend analysis, the Mann Kendall (MK) test, the Spearman's rho (SR) test, and the Sen test are used. Furthermore, the Pettitt test is implemented to detect the change points and the Thiel-Sen approach is used to estimate the magnitude of trend in the precipitation and temperature time series. The results indicate that there is overall warming in the region which has experienced a significant shift in trend direction since 2000. The trend analysis of annual precipitation data time series shows that Bossaso and Garowe stations have significant positive trends, while the Qardho station has no trend. In 1997 and 1998, respectively, abrupt changes in annual precipitation are detected at Qardho and Garowe stations. Due to the civil war of more than three decades in Somalia and the non-institutionalized governance to inform historical drought conditions in the country, determining the most appropriate meteorological drought index would help to develop a drought monitoring system for states and the entire country.
ISSN: 2071-1050
Appears in Collections:Civil Engineering / İnşaat Mühendisliği
Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collection
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collection

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