Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/11147/13956
Title: Evolution of tunneling hydro-technology: From ancient times to present and future
Authors: Angelakis, Andreas N.
Passchier, Cees W.
Valipour, Mohammad
Krasilnikoff, Jens A.
Tzanakakis, Vasileios A.
Ahmed, Abdelkader T.
Baba, Alper
Kumar, Rohitashw
Bilgiç, Esra
Capodaglio, Andrea G.
Dercas, Nicholas
Keywords: Tunnel systems
Qanats
Persian Empire
Sustainable systems engineering
Aqueducts
Publisher: MDPI
Abstract: Water tunnels are one of the oldest hydro-technologies for extracting water resources and/or transmitting them through water distribution systems. In the past, human societies have used tunneling for various purposes, including development, as a measure to enable underground resource extraction and the construction of transportation networks in challenging landscapes and topographies. The development of hydro-technology potentially involves the construction of tunnels to feed aqueducts, irrigation and waste water systems. Thus, the ability to make and maintain tunnels became an important component in creating lasting and sustainable water systems, which increased water supply and security, minimized construction costs, and reduced environmental impact. Thus, this review asks how, when and why human societies of the past included tunneling for the development of lasting water supply systems. This review presents a comprehensive overview across time and space, covering the history of tunneling in hydro technology from antiquity to the present, and it ponders how past experiences could impact on future hydro-technological projects involving tunneling. A historical review of tunnel systems enhances our understanding of the potential, performance, challenges, and prospects associated with the use of hydro-techniques. In the past, as the different examples in time and space demonstrate, tunneling was often dedicated to solving local problems of supply and disposal. However, across the world, some features were repeated, including the need for carving through the living rock or digging to create tunnels covered with stone slabs. Also, the world-wide use of extensive and costly tunnel systems indicates the high level of investment which human societies are willing to make for securing control over and with its water resources. This study helps us to gather inspiration from proven technologies of the past and more recent knowledge of water tunnel design and construction. As we face global warming and its derivate problems, including problems of water scarcity and flooding, the ability to create and maintain tunnels remains an important technology for the future.
URI: https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10090190
https://hdl.handle.net/11147/13956
ISSN: 2306-5338
Appears in Collections:Civil Engineering / İnşaat Mühendisliği
Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collection
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collection

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